Groupe nominal

Adverbes

Verbes

La phrase

Les pronoms relatifs

On distingue deux types de propositions relatives :

 déterminative
 elle définit l'objet dont elle parle,

elle est essentielle

 the man who died was his brother
 non-déterminative
 elle apporte une précision accessoire,

elle est limitative

Smith, whom she did not know, had just arrived

(plus souvent après une virgule, avec that ou ø)

 

 Fonction
 Antécédent animé
Antécédent inanimé
 Sujet
who

the man who died was his brother

 which (that)

He bought a hat which was funny

 C.O.D.
who(m) (that) (ø)

The woman (whom) he met there was German

 
which (that)(ø)

The paper ø he bought is on the table

 C.O.I.
 
who(m) (that) (ø)... préposition

préposition + whom

The man ø he thought of was not selfish

 
which (that)(ø)... préposition

préposition + which

I lost the paper on which I had written his number

 C. du nom
(possesion) whose

The man whose car is parked across the street is Mr Jones

(autre que possession) that / ø

The man (that) you're talking about is Mr Jones

(possesion) whose

the house whose blinds are down is for sale

(autre que possession) that / ø

The house (that) they bought is Victorian

On peut omettre le relatif COD et COI quand il introduit un proposition relative définissante (qui limite le sens de l'antécédent)

the man ø he was speaking to (définit 'man') was American

She started speaking with Smith, whom she did not know (complément d'information)

on emploie plus volontiers 'that' après ...

 Temps : when

  The time when families had lunch together is gone

 Lieu : where

 I know a place where you can get a free haircut

 Cause : why

 He did not mention the reason why he resigned

 what est un relatif sans antécédent,
il annonce ce qui va suivre

 What I need is a nice cup of tea

 which reprend le début d'une phrase

 he refused my help, which wasn't surprising

Place de la préposition dans la relative

Devant le relatif :

Nantua is a town about which I know nothing

Après le verbe (dans une définissante, le relatif peut être sous entendu)

Nantua is a town I know nothing about

traduction de "dont"

s'il est c. du nom

whose

the people whose cars were damaged complained

s'il est c. de verbe

ø

The woman I told you about (c. de tell)

s'il est c. d'adjectif

ø

the band I'm crazy about.... (c. de crazy)

Exercices en ligne

which ou what - relatives définissantes

relatives non définissantes


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