Groupe nominal

Adverbes

Verbes

La phrase

Les modaux

Les modaux expriment toujours un jugement subjectif.

Il peut s'agir d'un jugement de probabilité, ou d'un jugement concernant le sujet de l'action.

Present

can
may
must
will
shall

Preterit

could
might
X
would
should
Structure pour exprimer un jugement sur le PRESENT

Forme affirmative

  • Sujet + modal + Base Verbale
  • Sujet+modal+be+-ing
  • He can forget
  • He can be sleeping

Forme interrogative

  • Modal + sujet + Base Verbale
  • Modal + sujet + be +-ing
  • Can he forget?
  • Can he be sleeping?

Forme négative

  • Sujet + modal +négation + BV
  • Sujet + modal +négation + be +-ing
  • He can't forget
  • He can't be sleeping
Structure pour exprimer un jugement sur le PASSE

Forme affirmative

  • Sujet + modal + have + participe passé
  • Sujet + modal + have been +-ing
  • He can have forgotten
  • He can have been sleeping

Forme interrogative

  • Modal + sujet+ have + p p
  • Modal + sujet+ have been +-ing
  • Can he have forgotten?
  • Can he have been sleeping?

Forme négative

  • Sujet + modal +négation + have + p p
  • Sujet + modal +négation + have been +-ing
  • He can't have forgotten
  • He can't have been sleeping

Will / shall + have + participe passé : sert à prédire une action antérieure à un repère temporel, présent ou futur

ex : he will have finished by now

Modal
Sens 1

(jugement de probabilité)

Sens 2

(pression de l'énonciateur sur autrui)

Sens 2 bis
WILL
prédiction / certitude
It will rain tomorrow
He will be home by now.
caractéristique naturelle du sujet
Accidents will happen
volonté,
demande de service
Will you come along?
Open the door, will you?
MUST
quasi certitude
He must be asleep by now
obligation, contrainte
You must work harder

CAN
possibilité
You can try that
capacité
He can speak Spanish
demande de service,
permission
Can you help me?
Can I go now?
COULD
éventualité
You could be wrong
capacité au passé
He said he could skate
demande de service, permission
Could you help me?
Could I have some more tea?
MAY
possibilité
You may be right
permission,
demande de permission
You may go now
May I go now?

.

MIGHT
· faible probabilité
He might lose (but I don't think so)
 
· probabilité passée
She said she might be late

.

.

WOULD
possibilité sous condition
It would be nice if they came
possibilité passée sous condition
It would have been nice if they had come
demande de service
Would you tell me the time?
MUSTN'T
probabilité négative
He mustn't be home
interdiction
You mustn't park here

MAY NOT
probabilité négative
It may not rain today
interdiction
You may not smoke here

CAN'T
impossibilité logique
It can't be true
incapacité
He can't skate
interdiction
You can't go out now
WON'T
impossibilité totale
they won't make it
refus
She won't take no for an answer

SHOULD
prédiction logique, mais pas certaine
They should be home by now
conseil
You should give up smoking
reproche
You shouldn't have said that!
SHALL
prédiction inévitable
We shall overcome
contrainte du sujet / loi
You shall not kill
suggestion
Shall I open the window?

Cas Particulier de NEED et DARE

Si tout cela semble encore confus, vous pouvez prendre les choses à l'envers!!!


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